Intravenous LPS challenge does has several limitations:
(i) it only supports the evaluation of systemic anti-inflammatory investigational compounds;
(ii) it leads to a prolonged state of immunological hypo-responsiveness to LPS due to systemic innate memory, hampering the possibility of a repeated challenge in the same individual and
(iii) it results in a systemic inflammatory response in which it is difficult or impossible to assess the contribution of stromal tissues.
A local innate immune challenge in humans, such as an intradermal LPS challenge, could in theory overcome all three limitations mentioned above. Earlier studies indicated that intradermal LPS administration induced a local inflammatory response, characterized by a strong neutrophil attraction and the production of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1β. Therefore, we recently conducted a study to characterize the intradermal LPS response in healthy volunteers more extensively, using both non-invasive assessments (perfusion, skin temperature and erythema) and invasive assessments (cellular and cytokine responses) in skin biopsies and blister exudate, and as such qualify the method as local inflammation model for clinical pharmacology studies.
Read about the promising results here.