TMS-EMG and TMS-EEG
TMS combined with electromyography (EMG) or electroencephalography (EEG) is increasingly used in clinical neurophysiology, as it offers a non-invasive method to study cortical excitability. This potentially makes TMS a valuable biomarker in clinical trials, to study effects of drugs that are expected to affect cortical excitability. Therefore, we have evaluated the effects of levetiracetam, valproic acid and lorazepam on cortical excitability in healthy volunteers, as measured by TMS-EMG and TMS-EEG. Our data indicates that levetiracetam, valproic acid and lorazepam show significant effects on cortical excitability as measured by TMS-EMG and TMS-EEG. This suggests that TMS-EMG and TMS-EEG are a promising biomarker to use in clinical trials with drugs that target cortical excitability.