Therapeutic vaccination with human papillomavirus type 16 synthetic long peptides (HPV16-SLPs) results in T cell-mediated regression of HPV16-induced premalignant lesions but fails to install clinically effective immunity in patients with HPV16-positive cervical cancer. We explored whether HPV16-SLP vaccination can be combined with standard carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy to improve immunity and which time point would be optimal for vaccination. This was studied in the HPV16 E6/E7-positive TC-1 mouse tumor model and in patients with advanced cervical cancer. In mice and patients, the presence of a progressing tumor was associated with abnormal frequencies of circulating myeloid cells. Treatment of TC-1-bearing mice with chemotherapy and therapeutic vaccination resulted in superior survival and was directly related to a chemotherapy-mediated altered composition of the myeloid cell population in the blood and tumor. Chemotherapy had no effect on tumor-specific T cell responses. In advanced cervical cancer patients, carboplatin-paclitaxel also normalized the abnormal numbers of circulating myeloid cells, and this was associated with increased T cell reactivity to recall antigens. The effect was most pronounced starting 2 weeks after the second cycle of chemotherapy, providing an optimal immunological window for vaccination. This was validated with a single dose of HPV16-SLP vaccine given in this time window. The resulting proliferative HPV16-specific T cell responses were unusually strong and were retained after all cycles of chemotherapy. In conclusion, carboplatin-paclitaxel therapy fosters vigorous vaccine-induced T cell responses when vaccination is given after chemotherapy and has reset the tumor-induced abnormal myeloid cell composition to normal values.