Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase pain intensity and decrease pain thresholds in healthy subjects. In chronic pain patients, sleep impairment often worsens the perceived pain intensity. This increased pain perception is the result of altered nociceptive processing. We recently developed a method to quantify and monitor altered nociceptive processing by simultaneous tracking of psychophysical detection thresholds and recording of evoked cortical potentials during intra-epidermal electric stimulation. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of nociceptive detection thresholds and evoked potentials to altered nociceptive processing after sleep deprivation in an exploratory study with 24 healthy male and 24 healthy female subjects. In each subject, we tracked nociceptive detection thresholds and recorded central evoked potentials in response to 180 single- and 180 double-pulse intra-epidermal electric stimuli. Results showed that the detection thresholds for single- and double-pulse stimuli and the average central evoked potential for single-pulse stimuli were significantly decreased after sleep deprivation. When analyzed separated by sex, these effects were only significant in the male population. Multivariate analysis showed that the decrease of central evoked potential was associated with a decrease of task-related evoked activity. Measurement repetition led to a decrease of the detection threshold to double-pulse stimuli in the mixed and the female population, but did not significantly affect any other outcome measures. These results suggest that simultaneous tracking of psychophysical detection thresholds and evoked potentials is a useful method to observe altered nociceptive processing after sleep deprivation, but is also sensitive to sex differences and measurement repetition.