Salbutamol is used in the management of obstructive bronchospasm, including that of some elite athletes. It is claimed that high salbutamol (oral) doses may also have an anabolic effect. Therefore, inhalation of salbutamol is restricted by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to a maximal daily dose. Urine is tested for violations, but recent cases have resulted in a debate regarding the validity of this approach. It was our aim to determine whether current approaches are sufficiently able to differentiate approved usage from violations.