Transcranial magnetic stimulation as biomarker of excitability in drug development: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

Ruijs TQ, Heuberger JAAC, de Goede AA, Ziagkos D, Otto ME, Doll RJ, van Putten MJAM, Groeneveld GJ

The purpose of this study was to investigate pharmacodynamic effects of drugs targeting cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy subjects, to further develop TMS outcomes as biomarkers for proof-of-mechanism in early-phase clinical drug development. Antiepileptic drugs presumably modulate cortical excitability. Therefore, we studied effects of levetiracetam, valproic acid and lorazepam on cortical excitability in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-way cross-over study.