Historically, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) have relied on plasma as a sampling matrix. Noninvasive sampling matrices, such as saliva, can reduce the burden on pediatric patients. The variable plasma-saliva relationship can be quantified using population PK models (nonlinear mixed-effect models). However, criteria regarding acceptable levels of variability in such models remain unclear. In this simulation study, the authors aimed to propose a saliva TDM evaluation framework and evaluate model requirements in the context of TDM, with gentamicin and lamotrigine as model compounds.