The pharmacokinetics of recombinant double-chain t-PA (duteplase): effects of bolus injection, infusions, and administration by weight in patients with myocardial infarction.

Koster RW, Cohen AF, Kluft C, Kasper FJ, van der Wouw PA, Weatherley BC

The current mode of administration of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in acute myocardial infarction is rather complex, although the rationale for the different components of this scheme is not clearly established. We compared pharmacokinetics of a continuous infusion of 38.5 MU of Burroughs Wellcome t-PA (duteplase) over 90 minutes in nine patients (phase I) with a scheme including a 0.04 MU/kg bolus, a 60-minute 0.36 MU/kg lytic infusion and a 180-minute 0.21 MU/kg maintenance infusion in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction (Phase II). t-PA activity and antigen were fitted in a one-compartment model from which model-dependent and model-independent parameters were derived. Clearance of t-PA activity was 1020 +/- 465 (mean +/- SD) ml/min in phase I and 1359 +/- 590 ml/min in phase II. Clearance of t-PA antigen was 666 +/- 230 ml/min in phase I and 704 +/- 199 ml/min in phase II. Clearance of activity was significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than of antigen. Clearance and steady-state plasma levels showed a large interindividual variability (coefficient of variation, 56.4%), but this was significantly reduced by dosing by weight (coefficient of variation, 28.9%; p = 0.031). A 10% bolus in phase II shortened the time to reach 75% and 90% of the steady-state plasma level by 4 and 5 minutes, respectively, not significantly different from phase I. A simulation study showed that a bolus should be approximately 15% of the lytic dose to achieve a maximal level in the shortest period.