We have studied the pharmacodynamic effects of ramipril, propranolol, and their combination, as well as the effect of propranolol on the pharmacokinetics of ramipril in 12 healthy men (age 24 (SD 6) y, weight 72 (7) kg). Propranolol and placebo, ramipril and placebo, or propranolol and ramipril were given orally for four days in a crossover, double-blind fashion. The pharmacokinetics of ramipril and ramiprilat were investigated on day 4. Effects on plasma renin activity, ACE activity, and heart rate and blood pressure both before and after a standardized exercise test were measured on days 1 and 4. On day 4 the combination reduced the mean arterial pressure by 2.8 mmHg compared with propranolol alone and by 3.7 mmHg compared with ramipril alone. Ramipril had no effect on the bradycardia induced by propranolol. Propranolol reduced exercise mean arterial pressure by 9 mmHg (day 4) and heart rate by 7 beats.min-1 (day 4) compared with ramipril; this was not affected by co-administration of ramipril. On day 4 the average plasma renin activity was not significantly higher than after the combination. ACE activity was not affected by propranolol. The pharmacokinetics of ramipril and ramiprilat were not influenced by propranolol. The combination of ramipril and propranolol has additive pharmacodynamic effects that may be useful in the treatment of hypertension.