Potential targets for tumor-specific imaging of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review of candidate biomarkers.

Huisman BW, Burggraaf J, Vahrmeijer AL, Schoones JW, Rissmann RA, Sier CFM, van Poelgeest MIE

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a rare malignancy with an increasing incidence, especially in young women. Surgical treatment of VSCC is associated with significant morbidity and high recurrence rates, which is related to the limited ability to distinguish (pre)malignant from healthy tissue. There is a need for new tools for specific real-time detection of occult tumor lesions and localization of cancer margins in patients with VSCC. Several tumor-specific imaging techniques are developed to recognize malignant tissue by targeting tumor markers. We present a systematic review to identify, evaluate, and summarize potential markers for tumor-specific imaging of VSCC.