Clinical translation and implementation of optical imaging agents for precision image-guided cancer surgery.

Achterberg FB, Deken MM, Meijer RPJ, Mieog JSD, Burggraaf J, van de Velde CJH, Swijnenburg RJ, Vahrmeijer AL

The field of tumor-specific fluorescence-guided surgery has seen a significant increase in the development of novel tumor-targeted imaging agents. Studying patient benefit using intraoperative fluorescence-guided imaging for cancer surgery is the final step needed for implementation in standard treatment protocols. Translation into phase III clinical trials can be challenging and time consuming. Recent studies have helped to identify certain waypoints in this transition phase between studying imaging agent efficacy (phase I-II) and proving patient benefit (phase III).