A systematic review on disease-drug-drug interactions with immunomodulating drugs: A critical appraisal of risk assessment and drug labelling.

de Jong LM, Klomp SD, Treijtel N, Rissmann R, Swen JJ, Manson ML

Use of immunomodulating therapeutics for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases may cause disease-drug-drug interactions (DDDIs) by reversing inflammation-driven alterations in the metabolic capacity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. European Medicine Agency (EMA) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines from 2007 recommend that the DDDI potential of therapeutic proteins should be assessed. This systematic analysis aimed to characterize the available DDDI trials with immunomodulatory drugs, experimental evidence for a DDDI risk and reported DDDI risk information in FDA/EMA approved drug labelling.