Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) pathways are major contributors to pathological inflammatory responses induced by tissue damage. NI-0101 is the first monoclonal antibody (mAb) blocking TLR4 signaling. This activity is independent of the ligand type and concentration, therefore, potentially blocking any TLR4 ligands. A phase I single ascending dose study was conducted in 73 healthy volunteers to evaluate NI-0101 tolerability, preliminary safety, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and pharmacodynamics (PDs), in absence and in presence of a systemic challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand. NI-0101 was well tolerated without safety concern. The PK profile was characterized by a half-life of ∼10 days at high concentrations and by a rapid elimination at low concentrations due to expected target-mediated drug disposition. NI-0101 prevented cytokine release following ex vivo and in vivo LPS administration and prevented the C-reactive protein (CRP) increase and the occurrence of flu-like symptoms expected following the in vivo administration of LPS.